Minggu, 19 Juni 2011

Functions of Management Education

By: Subagio, M.Pd.

In general, there are four functions of management are often people call it "POAC", namely Planning, Organizing, Actuating and Controlling. The first two functions are categorized as mental activity, while the next two categorized as physical activity. A management can be said to succeed if the four functions above can be run properly. Weakness on one of the functions of management will affect the overall management and resulted in failure to achieve effective and efficient process.
1. Function Planning (Planning)
Planning to hold every leader and executor to be implemented. Thus, planning can be united through the similarity of views, attitudes and acts in the implementation in the field. Can also be said that leaders must know for certain goals over the medium term and long-term planning of this medium also, it must determine the short-term planning. These short-term planning must be specified upon priorities, which must be done first and gradually terebih and implement planned next steps to short-term goals can be achieved fully, the evaluation should be held to refine the next step.
Planning is a process that does not end when the plan has been established, the plans must be implemented. At any time during the process of implementation and supervision, plans may require modification in order to remain useful. Therefore, planning should consider the need for flexibility, to be able to adapt to new situations and conditions as quickly as possible. Planning is the process by which management determines objectives and how to achieve it. The difference is the result of the implementation of the type and level of planning is different. Planning in organizations is essential, because in reality, planning plays a role more than any other management functions. The functions of organizing, directing, and supervision is actually just carrying out the decisions of the planning.
One aspect that is also important in planning is decision making (decision making), the process of development and selection of a host of activities to solve a particular problem.
There are four stages in the planning, namely: (a). Setting a goal or set of objectives (b). Formulate a goal today. (C). Identifying all the opportunities and obstacles. (D). Develop a plan or series of activities to solve a particular problem.
2. Function Organizing (Organizing)
Organizing function is an arrangement of activities in Human Resources (HR) and physical resources owned by other educational organizations to carry out a predetermined plan and reach educational goals.
Organizing is the process of developing an appropriate organizational structure with organizational objectives, resource-its resources, and the surrounding conditions. Two major aspects of the process structure and organizational structure that is departmentalizing division of labor. Departmentalize is a grouping of activities of organizations working for similar activities are interconnected to be undertaken together. This will be reflected in the formal structure of an organization and look or indicated by an organizational chart. The division of labor is a breakdown of job duties that every individual in the organization responsible for implementing a set of activities. Both aspects are the basis of the process of organizing an organization to achieve set objectives efficiently and effectively.
There is some sense of organization, among others, as inventoried by Ritha F. Dalimunthe in (http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/1236/1/manajemen-ritha.pdf), namely: (a). How to design a formal structure for management of the most effective use of existing resources. (B). How organizations classify its activities, and each group followed by the assignment of a manager who is authorized to oversee the group members. (C). Relationships between functions, positions, tasks and employees. (D). How managers divide the tasks that must be implemented in their departments and to delegate the necessary authority in the execution of the task.
Organizing is a process to design a formal structure to group and organize and divide the tasks or the work among the members of the organization can be achieved efficiently. There are several important aspects in the process of organizing, namely: a). Formal organization chart; b). Division of labor; c). Departmentalize; d) The chain of command or unity of command; e). Levels of management hiraki f). Communication channels; and g). Range management and informal groups that can be avoided.
Organizing process consists of three stages, namely: (a). Details of the work to be carried out each individual in achieving organizational goals, (b). The division of the workload into activities that logically can be implemented by each individual. The division of labor should not be too heavy so it can not be completed, or too light so there is idle time, inefficient and unnecessary costs occur. (C). Procurement and development of working mechanism so that there is coordination of work of the members of the organization into a unified and harmonious unity. This coordination mechanism will make the members of the organization understand the goals of the organization and reduce the inefficiencies and conflicts.
3. Function Briefing (Actuating)
Directing is a human relationship which binds the leadership of subordinates to be willing to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently energy in achieving the goals of an organization. In the management, these briefings are very complex because in addition to human concerns also about the various behaviors of the humans themselves. Man with a variety of behavior that is different. There are several pronsip conducted by the company in conducting briefings, namely: (a). The principle leads to the goal. (B). The principle of harmony with the goals. (C). The principle of unity of command.
In general, the leadership wanted the direction to subordinates with the intention that they are willing to work best, and expected not to deviate from the principles above.
Ways of directing that is done, as revealed by Ritha F. Dalimunthe in (http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/1236/1/manajemen-ritha.pdf) can be:
a. Orientation
Is a way of direction by providing the necessary information so that activities can be done well.
b. Command
Is a request from the President to the people below him to perform or repeat certain activities in certain circumstances.
c. Delegation of authority
In delegating this authority leaders delegate some of its authority kepadabawahannya.
4. Supervisory Function (Controlling)
Controlling or monitoring, often called control is one of the functions of management conducted an assessment, if necessary, make corrections so that what the subordinate can be directed to the right path with the aims and objectives which have been outlined previously. Controlling (supervision) is the process of observation rather than the implementation of all activities of the organization to ensure that all work is being done goes according to plan set (Ulbert Silalahi, 2000). Supervision of management is a systematic attempt to establish standards of achievement with the goals of planning, designing information feedback system, comparing actual performance with standards that have been established, determine whether there were significant irregularities and measures and take necessary corrective actions to ensure that all resources companies that are being used wherever possible in a more efficient and effective to achieve the target company (Bedjo Siswanto, 1991). Monitoring (controlling) can be interpreted as a process to establish what work is already implemented, assessed and corrected if necessary with a view to implementation of the work in accordance with the original plan. (M. Manullang, 1998)
From some of the above definition can be concluded that surveillance activities are intended to prevent deviations in the implementation of activities or work performance and corrective measures when deviations have occurred from what was planned.
Thus, controlling the activities arranged for the implementation of the plan in accordance with specified in the plan. Among some of the functions of management, planning and monitoring (controlling) has a very important role in the planning function set about what must be achieved at a certain period, whereas in the control (controlling) sought to evaluate whether the intended purpose can be achieved and that can not be achieved contributing factor, so that corrective action can be performed (corretive action).
Therefore, how close the relationship between planning and supervision. In planning the organization's activities, the main purpose and objectives and methods to achieve clearly defined. In controlling measure progress towards these goals and enable leaders to detect deviations from those plans in time to take action before deviations become more distant.
In other words, surveillance and research needed to ensure that the work program is not too deviated from the plan and if there is no deviation, then it may be considered rational and efficient.
Can we draw the conclusion that the function of controlling a process for overseeing all activities were on target, so that the intended purpose can be achieved and is in the implementation of any remedial action work program activities in accordance with a predetermined plan.
The word "supervision" often connotes an unpleasant, because they criticized the freedom and personal autonomy, even though organizations are in need of supervision to ensure the achievement of goals, so the manager's job is to find a balance between oversight organizations and personal freedom or seek appropriate levels of supervision. Excessive supervision would lead to bureaucracy, turn off the creativity and so on are ultimately detrimental to the organization itself, otherwise inadequate supervision can lead to waste of resources and make difficult the achievement of goals.
Of the various constraints monitoring (controlling), that the main purpose of supervision is to see to it that what is planned to become a reality. To be able to realize the ultimate goal, then the first level of supervision at intended that implementation of the work in accordance with the instructions have been issued and to know the weaknesses, weaknesses and difficulties encountered in the implementation plan based on the findings can be taken action to fix it either at that time or the times to come.

In the process a lot more oversight include actions seeking the source of trouble and correct it. Therefore, the purpose of control functions among others: (1). Prevent the occurrence of irregularities which have been planned goals. (2). In order for the work process in accordance with the procedures outlined or defined. (3). Prevent and remove obstacles and difficulties will come, or may occur in the implementation of activities. (4). Prevent distortion of resource use. (5). Preventing abuse of authority and position
In order for that goal is reached, then it would be better if the control measures carried out before the deviations that are more prevention (preventive control) compared with the control measures after the deviation occurs (representative control). Control a system would be effective if: (1). The real output is measured precisely and compared with the desired output. (2). The decisions necessary action implemented. (3). Information feedback is fast enough to make repairs before the factors in the process become incompatible with the improvements made.

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